False memory research paper

Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness sleep deprivation or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words.

However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period.

The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. Crown Copyright Published by Elsevier B. False memory and importance: can we prioritize encoding without consequence? Given the large amount of information that we encounter, we often must prioritize what information we attempt to remember. Although critical for everyday functioning, relatively little research has focused on how people prioritize the encoding of information. Recent research has shown that people can and do selectively remember information assigned with higher, relative to lower, importance.

However, the mechanisms underlying this prioritization process and the consequences of these processes are still not well understood.

False Memories - Psychologist World

In the present study, we sought to better understand these prioritization processes and whether implementing these processes comes at the cost of memory accuracy, by increasing false memories. In Experiment 1, encoding higher values led to more false memories than did encoding lower values, possibly because prioritizing information enhanced relational processing among high-value words.

In Experiment 2, disrupting relational processing selectively reduced false memories for high-value words. Finally, in Experiment 3, facilitating relational processing selectively increased false memories for low-value words. These findings suggest that while prioritizing information can enhance true memory , this process concomitantly increases false memories.

Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these prioritization processes depends on the ability to successfully engage in relational processing. Thus, how we prioritize the encoding of incoming information can come at a cost in terms of accurate memory. A picture is worth a thousand lies: using false photographs to create false childhood memories.

Because image-enhancing technology is readily available, people are frequently exposed to doctored images. However, in prior research on how adults can be led to report false childhood memories , subjects have typically been exposed to personalized and detailed narratives describing false events. Instead, we exposed 20 subjects to a false childhood event via a fake photograph and imagery instructions.

Over three interviews, subjects thought about a photograph showing them on a hot air balloon ride and tried to recall the event byusing guided-imagery exercises. Fifty percent of the subjects created complete or partial false memories. The results bear on ways in which false memories can be created and also have practical implications for those involved in clinical and legal settings. False Context Fear Memory in Rats. Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber context A or to a control environment context C , shocked after a delay in a second chamber context B and tested either in B or A.

Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control….

Creating False Memories

Item-specific processing reduces false memories. Type of encoding item-specific or relational was manipulated between subjects in Experiment 1 and within subjects in Experiment 2. Decision-based explanations e. Memory -based explanations predict reductions in false recognition in both designs, resulting from enhanced recollection of item-specific details. False recognition was reduced following item-specific encoding instructions in both experiments, favoring a memory -based explanation.

These results suggest that providing unique cues for the retrieval of individual studied items results in enhanced discrimination between those studied items and critical lures. Conversely, enhancing the similarity of studied items results in poor discrimination among items within a particular list theme. Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe MTL and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments true memory is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments false memory.

Exposure to suggestion and creation of false auditory memories. The experiment investigated the possibility of creating false auditory memory through exposure to suggestion. Research by Loftus and others has indicated that, through suggestion, false memories can be created.

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Participants viewed a short film and were given a 9-item questionnaire. Eight questions were used as filler while one question asked respondents to recall a phrase one character had said. Although the character actually said nothing, 23 of 30 respondents recalled having heard him speak and specifically recalled his words.

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This statistically significant result shows that auditory memories can also be created. Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott DRM paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography PSG. Setting: Sleep research laboratory.

Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory.

Laney et al study (False Memory) AS level Psychology Cambridge International Syllabus 9990

This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP ;37 4 Research demonstrates that acute exercise can enhance retrospective episodic memory performance. However, limited research has examined the effects of acute exercise on prospective memory , and no studies have examined the effects of exercise on false memory performance.

This study examined the potential effects of acute exercise on prospective memory and false memory performance. Prospective memory was assessed from two laboratory and two naturalistic assessments outside the lab. False memory was assessed using a word-list trial. These findings indicate that acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise is not associated with prospective memory performance but provides some suggestive evidence that acute exercise may reduce the rate of false memories.

In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority…. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood….

Discrete emotion-congruent false memories in the DRM paradigm. Research has shown that false-memory production is enhanced for material that is emotionally congruent with the mood of the participant at the time of encoding. So far this research has only been conducted to examine the influence of generic negative affective mood states and generic negative stimuli on false-memory production.

In addition, much of the research is limited as it focuses on valence and arousal dimensions, and fails to take into account the more comprehensive nature of emotions. The current study demonstrates that this effect goes beyond general negative or positive moods and acts at a more discrete emotional level.

Participants underwent a standard emotion-induction procedure before listening to negative emotional or neutral associative word lists. The emotions induced, negative word lists, and associated nonpresented critical lures, were related to either fear or anger, 2 negative valence emotions that are also both high in arousal. Results showed that when valence and arousal are controlled for, false memories are more likely to be produced for discrete emotionally congruent compared with incongruent materials.

These results support spreading activation theories of false remembering and add to our understanding of the adaptive nature of false-memory production. To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Balanced, crossover design. Sleep research laboratory. At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced "remember" responses, but not "know" responses to critical lures.

False Memory Syndrome Research Paper

In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. False memories with age: Neural and cognitive underpinnings. Mood-congruent true and false memory : effects of depression. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls.

These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance. False context fear memory in rats. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control rats in A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze when tested in A but did not freeze when tested in B and control rats did not freeze in either A or B. The false fear memory to the pre-exposed A was contingent on its similarity with the shocked B.

In Experiment 3, rats pre-exposed to A and subjected to immediate shock in B froze when tested in A but did not freeze when tested in C and rats pre-exposed to C did not freeze when tested either in A or C. In Experiment 4, rats pre-exposed to A and subjected to immediate shock in B froze more when tested in A than rats whose pre-exposure to A began with an immediate shock. The results were discussed in terms of a dual systems explanation of context fear conditioning: a hippocampal-dependent process that forms a unitary representation of context and an amygdala-based process which associates this representation with shock.

A mega-analysis of memory reports from eight peer-reviewed false memory implantation studies.


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Understanding that suggestive practices can promote false beliefs and false memories for childhood events is important in many settings e. The generalisability of findings from memory implantation studies has been questioned due to variability in estimates across studies. Such variability is partly due to false memories having been operationalised differently across studies and to differences in memory induction techniques. Independent raters coded transcripts using seven criteria: accepting the suggestion, elaboration beyond the suggestion, imagery, coherence, emotion, memory statements, and not rejecting the suggestion.

Using this scheme, When the suggestion included self-relevant information, an imagination procedure, and was not accompanied by a photo depicting the event, the memory formation rate was Our research demonstrates a useful procedure for systematically combining data that are not amenable to meta-analysis, and provides the most valid estimate of false memory formation and associated moderating factors within the implantation literature to date. Individual differences in susceptibility to false memories : The effect of memory specificity.

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