Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications. Essential Ethnographic Methods vol. New York, NY: Altamira press. Prompts, Probes and Encouragement. Zorn, T.
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Designing and Conducting Semi-Structured Interviews for research. Solution Semi-structured Interviews are used to gather focused, qualitative textual data.
How to Conduct a Journalistic Interview
Use When This method is used during both the early and late stages of exploring the research domain Use For Clarifying the research domain or the specific research question. Biases : Avoid leading questions.
Language : Use terms that participants can understand, given their knowledge, language skills, cultural background, age, gender, etc. Be mindful of the social or cultural contexts of your questions. Concise : Keep the questions as short and specific as possible. Avoid phrasing questions as negatives e. Consent forms : Prepare and have copies ready to be signed.
Recording devices : Determine how information will be recorded. Ask warm-up or demographic questions first; then, using the interview guide, move on to more focused questions. Allow flexibility for dialogue. Here are some other tips to keep in mind during the interview.
Use probing questions to gather as much information as possible. Try not to interrupt participants; make a note and come back to the idea later. If a participant gives an answer relating to a question you have not yet asked, record the answer and avoid repeating the question later.
If you are interviewing a small number of people you must make sure that the sample is as appropriate as possible to your research. Larger samples are normally employed in quantitative research using methods such as questionnaires. Keep these in mind when you are composing your interview guide. In both unstructured and semi-structured interviews a method of recording the responses is required. This can be by digital recording or note taking with the informed consent of the interviewee.
In either case the interview process is a flexible one, with the emphasis on the answers given by the interviewee. You should make sure that your interviewees have agreed to be interviewed. If they agree to be interviewed but decline to be recorded you can still go ahead with the interview, although your note taking would focus on writing down key points. Once you have completed your interviews you will have to transcribe your notes by copying what was said into a word-processed document.
Modern digital recorders allow you to download a recording onto a computer and then slow it down to a useful speed. Transcribing can take a very long time - a ten-minute interview could take one hour or more to transcribe, depending on how quickly you can type, how fast the interviewee speaks and how clear the recording is.
If you only have a short time in which to complete a research project make sure you do not over-estimate the number of people you can interview and transcribe.
Explain the Interview
Once you have completed the interview, reflect on how it went. Was there anything you could have done better? Do you need to add any questions or topic areas? Is there anything you should have explained to the interviewees? Once you have transcribed your interview s you may have a lot of data. How are you going to analyse it?
Some of it won't be useful, perhaps because the interviewee didn't keep to the subject, or gave background information which is not needed. Of the relevant information, you could pick out key points and quotes to illustrate your points. You could also code the information - essentially you could turn a qualitative interview into quantitative data. You would do this by identifying passages of text and applying labels to them to show that they are an example of a theme.
For example, if you asked 20 people how they travelled to work and one of the answers given was 'by car' this would be one thematic code. You could perhaps code car as '1' and 'bike' as '2' etc.
You could also use a qualitative research tool such as Nvivo, a program that helps you to classify your data using codes. Alternatively, if you had a small sample you could simply create a table on a piece of paper listing how many people said 'car' and how many said 'bike'.
- THE RESEARCH PAPER.
- Semi-Structured Interviews?
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Semi-Structured Interviews | Design Research Techniques
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